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Moussaka is an aubergine-based dish of the Balkans, Eastern Mediterranean, and the Middle East. Though its variations are part of all the national cuisines of the former Ottoman Empire and has an Arabic name, in the West it is best known in its Greek form.

All versions are based primarily on sautéed eggplant (aubergine) and tomato, usually with minced meat. The Greek version includes layers of meat and aubergine topped with a white sauce and baked. The modern Greek version was probably invented by Tselementes in the 1920s. It has three layers: a bottom layer of sautéed aubergine slices; a middle layer of cooked ground lamb cooked with onion, garlic, chopped tomatoes, herbs, and spices (cinnamon, allspice and black pepper); and a top layer of béchamel sauce or egg custard. The composed dish is baked until the top layer is browned. Moussaka is usually served lukewarm.

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