The Negroni cocktail is made of one part gin, one part sweet vermouth, and one part bitters, traditionally Campari. It is considered an apéritif, a pre-dinner cocktail intended to stimulate the appetite.
While the drink's origins are obscured by time, the most widely reported version is that it was invented in Florence, Italy in 1919, at Caffè Casoni, now called Caffè Giacosa. Count Camillo Negroni invented it by asking the bartender, Fosco Scarselli, to strengthen his favorite cocktail, the Americano, by adding gin rather than the normal soda water. The bartender also added an orange garnish rather than the typical lemon garnish of the Americano to signify that it was a different drink.
The standard recipe is very well balanced; however there are some variants. The Negroni sbagliato ("wrong" in Italian) uses sparkling wine (e.g., prosecco) instead of gin. Negroski is a recipe with vodka again as substitute for gin. Punt e Mes Negroni instead replaces standard red vermouth with a specific, distinctively more bitter-tasted brand called Punt e Mes.
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Original Negroni Recipe, www.cocktailtimes.com
Negroni Cocktail recipe, www.drinksmixer.com